Allen, Danielle. “Toward a Connected Society.” In Our Compelling Interests: The Value of Diversity for Democracy and a Prosperous Society, edited by Earl Lewis and Nancy Cantor, 71-105. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2016. Publisher's Version
As part of its work, the Trustee Ad Hoc Committee on Diversity commissioned a literature review that examines various research on how experiencing diversity influences learning, intergroup attitudes and behavior, and civic engagement, particularly in school and workplace environments.
This chapter, which draws on recent work in psychology to demonstrate the socially situated nature of human intelligence, shows that intellectual performance is not simply lodged within individuals' high test scores, straight As are not owned by a person alone, and poor scores or bad grades are not only the student's responsibility. Rather, intellectual performance is an emergent property of persons and social situations—an interaction between the two. These findings suggest that conceptualizing “intelligence” as a stable property of individuals and a reliable way of distinguishing between them may be inappropriate.